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iindaba

Umchiza wemichiza

Ubume (C4H3O-CHO), ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-2-furaldehyde, elona lungu laziwayo losapho lwe-furan kunye nomthombo wolunye uboya obubalulekileyo. Lulwelo olungenambala (indawo ebilayo ye-161.7 ° C; i-gravity ethile ye-1.1598) ngokuxhomekeke ekubeni mnyama kumngcipheko womoya. Iyanyibilika emanzini ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-8.3 ​​nge-20 ° C kwaye iyaphambuka ngokupheleleyo ngotywala kunye ne-ether.

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 Isithuba seminyaka emalunga ne-100 siphawule ixesha elisusela ekufumanekeni kobuso kwilabhoratri ukuya kwimveliso yokuqala yorhwebo ngo-1922. Uphuhliso loshishino olulandelayo lubonelela ngomzekelo obalaseleyo wokusetyenziswa kweentsalela zezolimo. IiCorncobs, iihabhu ze-oat, iigwele zekhokho, irayisi, kunye ne-bagasse zezona zinto ziphambili zivelisiweyo, ukuzaliswa kwazo ngonyaka okuqinisekisa ukubonelelwa okuqhubekayo. Kwinkqubo yokuvelisa, izinto ezininzi eziluhlaza kunye ne-asidi ye-sulfuric acid inyibilikiswa phantsi koxinzelelo kwizitshisi ezinkulu ezijikelezayo. Ubumba obenziwe ngobuso bususwa ngokuqhubekayo kunye nomphunga, kwaye bujolise kulwelo lokucoca ulwelo; I-distillate, kwi-condensation, iyahlula ibe ngamacandelo amabini. Umaleko osezantsi, oquka uboya obumanzi obomileyo, uyomiswa nge-distillation ye-vacuum ukufumana ubuncinci bobunyulu beepesenti ezingama-99.

I-Furfural isetyenziswa njengesinyibilikisi esikhethiweyo sokucoca ioyile yokuthambisa kunye ne-rosin, kunye nokuphucula ukusebenza kwe-diesel fuel kunye ne-catalytic cracker yokurisayikilisha impahla. Iqeshwe kakhulu ekwenziweni kweevili ezirhabaxa zentlaka kunye nokucocwa kwe-butadiene efunekayo kwimveliso yerabha yokwenziwa. Ukuveliswa kwenayiloni kufuna i-hexamethylenediamine, apho u-furfural ungumthombo obalulekileyo. Ukuxinana kunye ne-phenol kubonelela nge-furfural-phenolic resins ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zokusetyenziswa.

Xa umphunga we-furfural kunye ne-hydrogen udluliswa ngaphezulu kwesinyithi sobhedu kubushushu obuphezulu, i-furfuryl alcohol iyenziwa. Esi siphumo sibalulekileyo sisetyenziselwa ishishini leplastikhi ukuvelisa isamente enganyangekiyo umhlwa kunye nezinto ezibunjiweyo. I-hydrogenation efanayo ye-furfuryl yotywala ngaphezulu kwe-nickel catalyst inika i-tetrahydrofurfuryl utywala, ekuvela kuyo ii-esters ezahlukeneyo kunye ne-dihydropyran.

 Kwimpendulo yayo njengealdehyde, uboya obunobuso bufana benzaldehyde. Ke, iyangena kwi-Cannizzaro reaction kwi-alkali eyomeleleyo yolwelo; iyancipha kwi-furoin, uC4H3I-OCO-CHOH-C4H3O, phantsi kwefuthe le-potassium cyanide; iguqulelwe kwi-hydrofuramide, (C4H3O-CH)3U-N2, ngesenzo seammonia. Nangona kunjalo, i-furfural yahluke kakhulu kwi-benzaldehyde ngeendlela ezininzi, apho i-autoxidation iya kusebenza njengomzekelo. Ekuvezeni komoya kubushushu begumbi, uboya obufihlakeleyo buthobekile kwaye bunamathela kwifomic acid kunye nefomylacrylic acid. I-asidi ye-Furoic yicrystalline emhlophe eqinileyo eluncedo njenge-bactericide kunye nokulondolozwa. I-esters zayo zilulwelo olunuka kamnandi ezisetyenziswa njengezithako kwiziqholo nakwiziqholo.


Ixesha lokuposa: Aug-15-2020